Wednesday, November 21, 2018

Deployment Models of Cloud Computing.

Private cloud
types of cloud computing
Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third party and hosted either internally or externally. Undertaking a private cloud project requires significant engagement to virtualize the business environment, and requires the organization to reevaluate decisions about existing resources. It can improve business, but every step in the project raises security issues that must be addressed to prevent serious vulnerabilities. Self-run data centers are generally capital intensive. They have a significant physical footprint, requiring allocations of space, hardware, and environmental controls. These assets have to be refreshed periodically, resulting in additional capital expenditures. They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management, essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".

Public cloud

A cloud is called a "public cloud" when the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use. Public cloud services may be free. Technically there may be little or no difference between public and private cloud architecture, however, security consideration may be substantially different for services (applications, storage, and other resources) that are made available by a service provider for a public audience and when communication is effected over a non-trusted network. Generally, public cloud service providers like Amazon Web Services (AWS), Oracle, Microsoft and Google own and operate the infrastructure at their data center and access is generally via the Internet. AWS, Oracle, Microsoft, and Google also offer direct connect services called "AWS Direct Connect", "Oracle FastConnect", "Azure ExpressRoute", and "Cloud Interconnect" respectively, such connections require customers to purchase or lease a private connection to a peering point offered by the cloud provider.

Hybrid cloud

Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain distinct entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Hybrid cloud can also mean the ability to connect collocation, managed and/or dedicated services with cloud resources. Gartner defines a hybrid cloud service as a cloud computing service that is composed of some combination of private, public and community cloud services, from different service providers. A hybrid cloud service crosses isolation and provider boundaries so that it can't be simply put in one category of private, public, or community cloud service. It allows one to extend either the capacity or the capability of a cloud service, by aggregation, integration or customization with another cloud service.

Varied use cases for hybrid cloud composition exist. For example, an organization may store sensitive client data in the house on a private cloud application, but interconnect that application to a business intelligence application provided on a public cloud as a software service.[89] This example of a hybrid cloud extends the capabilities of the enterprise to deliver a specific business service through the addition of externally available public cloud services. Hybrid cloud adoption depends on a number of factors such as data security and compliance requirements, level of control needed over data, and the applications an organization uses.
Service Models of Cloud Computing
Another example of a hybrid cloud is one where IT organizations use public cloud computing resources to meet temporary capacity needs that can not be met by the private cloud. This capability enables hybrid clouds to employ cloud bursting for scaling across clouds. Cloud bursting is an application deployment model in which an application runs in a private cloud or data center and "bursts" to a public cloud when the demand for computing capacity increases. A primary advantage of cloud bursting and a hybrid cloud model is that an organization pays for extra compute resources only when they are needed. Cloud bursting enables data centers to create an in-house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads, and use cloud resources from public or private clouds, during spikes in processing demands. The specialized model of the hybrid cloud, which is built atop heterogeneous hardware, is called "Cross-platform Hybrid Cloud". A cross-platform hybrid cloud is usually powered by different CPU architectures, for example, x86-64 and ARM, underneath. Users can transparently deploy and scale applications without knowledge of the cloud's hardware diversity. This kind of cloud emerges from the rise of ARM-based system-on-chip for server-class computing.

Community cloud

Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party, and either hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.

Distributed cloud

A cloud computing platform can be assembled from a distributed set of machines in different locations, connected to a single network or hub service. It is possible to distinguish between two types of distributed clouds: public-resource computing and volunteer cloud.

Public-resource computing—This type of distributed cloud results from an expansive definition of cloud computing, because they are more akin to distributed computing than cloud computing. Nonetheless, it is considered a sub-class of cloud computing.
Volunteer cloud—Volunteer cloud computing is characterized as the intersection of public-resource computing and cloud computing, where a cloud computing infrastructure is built using volunteered resources. Many challenges arise from this type of infrastructure, because of the volatility of the resources used to build it and the dynamic environment it operates in. It can also be called peer-to-peer clouds, or ad-hoc clouds. An interesting effort in such direction is Cloud@Home, it aims to implement a cloud computing infrastructure using volunteered resources providing a business-model to incentivize contributions through financial restitution.


Multicloud is the use of multiple cloud computing services in a single heterogeneous architecture to reduce reliance on single vendors, increase flexibility through choice, mitigate against disasters, etc. It differs from the hybrid cloud in that it refers to multiple cloud services, rather than multiple deployment modes (public, private, legacy).

Big Data cloud

The issues of transferring large amounts of data to the cloud as well as data security once the data is in the cloud initially hampered adoption of cloud for big data, but now that much data originates in the cloud and with the advent of bare-metal servers, the cloud has become a solution for use cases including business analytics and geospatial analysis.

HPC cloud

HPC cloud refers to the use of cloud computing services and infrastructure to execute high-performance computing (HPC) applications. These applications consume a considerable amount of computing power and memory and are traditionally executed on clusters of computers. Various vendors offer servers that can support the execution of these applications. In the HPC cloud, the deployment model allows all HPC resources to be inside the cloud provider infrastructure or different portions of HPC resources to be shared between the cloud provider and client on-premise infrastructure. The adoption of the cloud to run HPC applications started mostly for applications composed of independent tasks with no inter-process communication. As cloud providers began to offer high-speed network technologies such as InfiniBand, multiprocessing tightly coupled applications started to benefit from the cloud as well.


Cloud computing sample architecture
Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others.

Cloud engineering

Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. It brings a systematic approach to the high-level concerns of commercialization, standardization, and governance in conceiving, developing, operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance, information technology engineering, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering.

Security and privacy

Main article: Cloud computing issues
Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider can access the data that is in the cloud at any time. It could accidentally or deliberately alter or delete information.[107] Many cloud providers can share information with third parties if necessary for purposes of law and order without a warrant. That is permitted in their privacy policies, which users must agree to before they start using cloud services. Solutions to privacy include policy and legislation as well as end users' choices for how data is stored. Users can encrypt data that is processed or stored within the cloud to prevent unauthorized access.
infrastructure of cloud computing
According to the Cloud Security Alliance, the top three threats in the cloud are Insecure Interfaces and API's, Data Loss & Leakage, and Hardware Failure—which accounted for 29%, 25% and 10% of all cloud security outages respectively. Together, these form shared technology vulnerabilities. In a cloud provider platform being shared by different users, there may be a possibility that information belonging to different customers resides on the same data server. Additionally, Eugene Schultz, chief technology officer at Emagined Security, said that hackers are spending substantial time and effort looking for ways to penetrate the cloud. "There are some real Achilles' heels in the cloud infrastructure that are making big holes for the bad guys to get into". Because data from hundreds or thousands of companies can be stored on large cloud servers, hackers can theoretically gain control of huge stores of information through a single attack—a process he called "hyperjacking". Some examples of this include the Dropbox security breach and iCloud 2014 leak. Dropbox had been breached in October 2014, has over 7 million of its users passwords stolen by hackers in an effort to get monetary value from it by Bitcoins (BTC). By having these passwords, they are able to read private data as well as have this data be indexed by search engines (making the information public).

There is the problem of legal ownership of the data (If a user stores some data in the cloud, can the cloud provider profit from it?). Many Terms of Service agreements are silent on the question of ownership. Physical control of the computer equipment (private cloud) is more secure than having the equipment off site and under someone else's control (public cloud). This delivers a great incentive to public cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. Some small businesses that don't have expertise in IT security could find that it's more secure for them to use a public cloud. There is the risk that end users do not understand the issues involved when signing on to a cloud service (persons sometimes don't read the many pages of the terms of service agreement, and just click "Accept" without reading). This is important now that cloud computing is becoming popular and required for some services to work, for example for an intelligent personal assistant (Apple's Siri or Google Now). Fundamentally, private cloud is seen as more secure with higher levels of control for the owner, however public cloud is seen to be more flexible and requires less time and money investment from the user.

Limitations and disadvantages

According to Bruce Schneier, "The downside is that you will have limited customization options. Cloud computing is cheaper because of economies of scale, and — like any outsourced task — you tend to get what you get. A restaurant with a limited menu is cheaper than a personal chef who can cook anything you want. Fewer options at a much cheaper price: it's a feature, not a bug." He also suggests that "the cloud provider might not meet your legal needs" and that businesses need to weigh the benefits of cloud computing against the risks. In cloud computing, the control of the back-end infrastructure is limited to the cloud vendor only. Cloud providers often decide on the management policies, which moderates what the cloud users are able to do with their deployment. Cloud users are also limited to the control and management of their applications, data and services. This includes data caps, which are placed on cloud users by the cloud vendor allocating a certain amount of bandwidth for each customer and are often shared among other cloud users.

Privacy and confidentiality are big concerns in some activities. For instance, sworn translators working under the stipulations of an NDA might face problems regarding sensitive data that are not encrypted.

Cloud computing is beneficial to many enterprises; it lowers costs and allows them to focus on competence instead of on matters of IT and infrastructure. Nevertheless, cloud computing has proven to have some limitations and disadvantages, especially for smaller business operations, particularly regarding security and downtime. Technical outages are inevitable and occur sometimes when cloud service providers become overwhelmed in the process of serving their clients. This may result in temporary business suspension. Since this technology's systems rely on the internet, an individual cannot be able to access their applications, server or data from the cloud during an outage.
Cloud computing

Emerging trends

Cloud computing is still a subject of research. A driving factor in the evolution of cloud computing has been chief technology officers seeking to minimize the risk of internal outages and mitigate the complexity of housing network and computing hardware in-house.[118] Major cloud technology companies invest billions of dollars per year in cloud Research and Development. For example, in 2011 Microsoft committed 90 percent of its $9.6 billion R&D budget to its cloud.[119] Research by investment bank Centaur Partners in late 2015 forecasted that SaaS revenue would grow from $13.5 billion in 2011 to $32.8 billion in 2016.

Digital forensics in the cloud
The issue of carrying out investigations where the cloud storage devices cannot be physically accessed has generated a number of changes to the way that digital evidence is located and collected. New process models have been developed to formalize collection.

In some scenarios existing digital forensics tools can be employed to access cloud storage as networked drives (although this is a slow process generating a large amount of internet traffic).[citation needed]

An alternative approach is to deploy a tool that processes in the cloud itself

For organizations using Office 365 with an 'E5' subscription, there is the option to use Microsoft's built-in discovery resources, although these do not provide all the functionality that is typically required for a forensic process.

Sources :

Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Characteristics of Cloud computing.

Cloud computing is shared pools of configurable computer system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.
Cloud Characteristics


Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:
Agility for organizations may be improved, as cloud computing may increase users' flexibility with re-provisioning, adding, or expanding technological infrastructure resources.
Cost reductions are claimed by cloud providers. A public-cloud delivery model converts capital expenditures (e.g., buying servers) to operational expenditure. This purportedly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third party and need not be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is "fine-grained", with usage-based billing options. As well, less in-house IT skills are required for implementation of projects that use cloud computing. The e-FISCAL project's state-of-the-art repository contains several articles looking into cost aspects in more detail, most of them concluding that costs savings depend on the type of activities supported and the type of infrastructure available in-house.

Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect to it from anywhere.

Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places (e.g., different work locations, while travelling, etc.).

Multitenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)
peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer and pay for the resources and equipment to meet their highest possible load-levels)
utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.

Performance is monitored by IT experts from the service provider, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.

Productivity may be increased when multiple users can work on the same data simultaneously, rather than waiting for it to be saved and emailed. Time may be saved as information does not need to be re-entered when fields are matched, nor do users need to install application software upgrades to their computer.
Reliability improves with the use of multiple redundant sites, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.
Scalability and elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis in near real-time (Note, the VM startup time varies by VM type, location, OS and cloud providers, without users having to engineer for peak loads. This gives the ability to scale up when the usage need increases or down if resources are not being used.
Security can improve due to the centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because service providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford to tackle or which they lack the technical skills to address. However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or over a greater number of devices, as well as in multi-tenant systems shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology's definition of cloud computing identifies "five essential characteristics":

On-demand self-service

 A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider. 

Broad network access 

Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations). 

Resource pooling

 The provider's computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand.

Rapid elasticity

Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. 

Measured service 

Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Service models

Cloud computing service models arranged as layers in a stack
Though service-oriented architecture advocates "everything as a service" (with the acronyms EaaS or XaaS, or simply aas), cloud-computing providers offer their "services" according to different models, of which the three standard models per NIST are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). These models offer increasing abstraction; they are thus often portrayed as a layer in a stack: infrastructure-, platform- and software-as-a-service, but these need not be related. For example, one can provide SaaS implemented on physical machines (bare metal), without using underlying PaaS or IaaS layers, and conversely, one can run a program on IaaS and access it directly, without wrapping it as SaaS.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
"Infrastructure as a service" (IaaS) refers to online services that provide high-level APIs used to dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security, backup etc. A hypervisor runs the virtual machines as guests. Pools of hypervisors within the cloud operating system can support large numbers of virtual machines and the ability to scale services up and down according to customers' varying requirements. Linux containers run in isolated partitions of a single Linux kernel running directly on the physical hardware. Linux groups and namespaces are the underlying Linux kernel technologies used to isolate, secure and manage the containers. Containerisation offers higher performance than virtualization because there is no hypervisor overhead. Also, container capacity auto-scales dynamically with computing load, which eliminates the problem of over-provisioning and enables usage-based billing. IaaS clouds often offer additional resources such as a virtual-machine disk-image library, raw block storage, file or object storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), and software bundles.

The NIST's definition of cloud computing describes IaaS as "where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, and deployed applications; and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).
IaaS-cloud providers supply these resources on-demand from their large pools of equipment installed in data centers. For wide-area connectivity, customers can use either the Internet or carrier clouds (dedicated virtual private networks). To deploy their applications, cloud users install operating-system images and their application software on the cloud infrastructure. In this model, the cloud user patches and maintains the operating systems and the application software. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis: cost reflects the number of resources allocated and consumed.[citation needed]

Platform as a service (PaaS)
Main article: Platform as a service
The NIST's definition of cloud computing defines Platform as a Service.

The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment.

PaaS vendors offer a development environment to application developers. The provider typically develops toolkit and standards for development and channels for distribution and payment. In the PaaS models, cloud providers deliver a computing platform, typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. With some PaaS offers like Microsoft Azure, Oracle Cloud Platform and Google App Engine, the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand so that the cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually. The latter has also been proposed by an architecture aiming to facilitate real-time in cloud environments.
Some integration and data management providers have also embraced specialized applications of PaaS as delivery models for data solutions. Examples include iPaaS (Integration Platform as a Service) and dPaaS (Data Platform as a Service). iPaaS enables customers to develop, execute and govern integration flows. Under the iPaaS integration model, customers drive the development and deployment of integrations without installing or managing any hardware or middleware. dPaaS delivers integration—and data-management—products as a fully managed service. Under the dPaaS model, the PaaS provider, not the customer, manages the development and execution of data solutions by building tailored data applications for the customer. dPaaS users retain transparency and control over data through data-visualization tools.[66] Platform as a Service (PaaS) consumers do not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but have control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment.

A recent specialized PaaS is a Blockchain as a Service (BaaS), that some vendors such as IBM Bluemix and Oracle Cloud Platform have already included in their PaaS offering.

Software as a service (SaaS)
Main article: Software as a service
The NIST's definition of cloud computing defines Software as a Service as:

cloud application
The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider's applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through either a thin client interface, such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email), or a program interface. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.

In the software as a service (SaaS) model, users gain access to application software and databases. Cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications. SaaS is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" and is usually priced on a pay-per-use basis or using a subscription fee. In the SaaS model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. Cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform where the application runs. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers, which simplifies maintenance and support. Cloud applications differ from other applications in their scalability—which can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet changing work demand. Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This process is transparent to the cloud user, who sees only a single access point. To accommodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be multitenant, meaning that any machine may serve more than one cloud user organization.

The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user, so prices become scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point. Proponents claim that SaaS gives a business the potential to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing hardware and software maintenance and support to the cloud provider. This enables the business to reallocate IT operations costs away from hardware/software spending and from personnel expenses, towards meeting other goals. In addition, with applications hosted centrally, updates can be released without the need for users to install new software. One drawback of SaaS comes with storing the users' data on the cloud provider's server. As a result,[citation needed] there could be unauthorized access to the data.[citation needed]

Mobile "backend" as a service (MBaaS)
Main article: Mobile backend as a service
In the mobile "backend" as a service (m) model, also known as backend as a service (BaaS), web app and mobile app developers are provided with a way to link their applications to cloud storage and cloud computing services with application programming interfaces (APIs) exposed to their applications and custom software development kits (SDKs). Services include user management, push notifications, integration with social networking services and more. This is a relatively recent model in cloud computing, with most BaaS startups dating from 2011 or later but trends indicate that these services are gaining significant mainstream traction with enterprise consumers.

Serverless computing
Main article: Serverless computing
Serverless computing is a cloud computing code execution model in which the cloud provider fully manages starting and stopping virtual machines as necessary to serve requests, and requests are billed by an abstract measure of the resources required to satisfy the request, rather than per virtual machine, per hour. Despite the name, it does not actually involve running code without servers. Serverless computing is so named because the business or person that owns the system does not have to purchase, rent or provision servers or virtual machines for the back-end code to run on.

Function as a service (FaaS)
Main article: Function as a service

Function as a service (FaaS) is a service-hosted remote procedure call that leverages serverless computing to enable the deployment of individual functions in the cloud that runs in response to events. FaaS is included under the broader term serverless computing, but the terms may also be used interchangeably.

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Cloud computing
cloud computing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cloud computing is shared pools of configurable computer system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.

Third-party clouds enable organizations to focus on their core businesses instead of expending resources on computer infrastructure and maintenance. Advocates note that cloud computing allows companies to avoid or minimize up-front IT infrastructure costs. Proponents also claim that cloud computing allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with improved manageability and less maintenance, and that it enables IT teams to more rapidly adjust resources to meet fluctuating and unpredictable demand. Cloud providers typically use a "pay-as-you-go" model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing models.

The availability of high-capacity networks, low-cost computers and storage devices as well as the widespread adoption of hardware virtualization, service-oriented architecture, and autonomic and utility computing has led to growth in cloud computing.


While the term "cloud computing" was popularized with releasing its Elastic Compute Cloud product in 2006,[8] references to the phrase "cloud computing" appeared as early as 1996, with the first known mention in a Compaq internal document.

The cloud symbol was used to represent networks of computing equipment in the original ARPANET by as early as 1977, and the CSNET by 1981 — both predecessors to the Internet itself. The word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics. With this simplification, the implication is that the specifics of how the endpoints of a network are connected are not relevant for the purposes of understanding the diagram.

The term cloud was used to refer to platforms for distributed computing as early as 1993 when Apple spin-off General Magic and AT&T used it in describing their (paired) Telescript and PersonaLink technologies. In Wired's April 1994 feature "Bill and Andy's Excellent Adventure II", Andy Hertzfeld commented on Telescript, General Magic's distributed programming language:

"The beauty of Telescript ... is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create the sort of a virtual service. No one had conceived that before. The example Jim White [the designer of Telescript, X.400 and ASN. uses now is a date-arranging service where a software agent goes to the flower store and orders flowers and then goes to the ticket shop and gets the tickets for the show, and everything is communicated to both parties.

Early history

During the 1960s, the initial concepts of time-sharing became popularized via RJE (Remote Job Entry); this terminology was mostly associated with large vendors such as IBM and DEC. Full-time-sharing solutions were available by the early 1970s on such platforms as Multics (on GE hardware), Cambridge CTSS, and the earliest UNIX ports (on DEC hardware). Yet, the "data center" model where users submitted jobs to operators to run on IBM mainframes was overwhelmingly predominant.

In the 1990s, telecommunications companies, who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service, but at a lower cost. By switching traffic as they saw fit to balance server use, they could use overall network bandwidth more effectively.[citation needed] They began to use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. Cloud computing extended this boundary to cover all servers as well as the network infrastructure. As computers became more diffused, scientists and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to more users through time-sharing.[citation needed] They experimented with algorithms to optimize the infrastructure, platform, and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end users.

The use of the cloud metaphor for virtualized services dates at least to General Magic in 1994, where it was used to describe the universe of "places" that mobile agents in the Telescript environment could go. As described by Andy Hertzfeld:

"The beauty of Telescript," says Andy, "is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create a sort of a virtual service.

The use of the cloud metaphor is credited to General Magic communications employee David Hoffman, based on long-standing use in networking and telecom. In addition to use by General Magic itself, it was also used in promoting AT&T's associated PersonaLink Services.


Google appearance to former Oracle EXEC Thomas Kurian to maneuver cloud business on

A Cloud story

Diane writer proclaimed on Fri that she was stepping down when 3 years running Google’s cloud business. she's going to be till the primary of the year to assist her successor, Thomas Kurian within the transition. He left Oracle at the tip of September when quite twenty years with the corporate and is charged with creating Google’s cloud division additional enterprise-friendly, a goal that has oddly eluded the corporate.

Greene was brought on board in 2015 to bring some order and enterprise savvy to the company’s cloud business. whereas she did facilitate move them on that path and grew the cloud business, it merely hasn’t been enough. There are rumblings for months that Greene’s time was returning to AN finish.

So the torch is being passed to Kurian, a person World Health Organization spent over twenty years at an organization which may be the precise opposite of Google. He ran product at Oracle, a conventional enterprise package company. Oracle itself has struggled to form the transition to a cloud company, however, Bloomberg reportable in September that one in all the explanations Kurian was taking a leave of absence at the time was a distinction of opinion with Chairman Larry Ellison over cloud strategy. per the report, Kurian wished to form Oracle’s package obtainable on public clouds like AWS and Azure (and Google Cloud). Ellison apparently didn’t agree and a few of weeks later Kurian proclaimed he was moving on.

Even though Kurian’s background won't appear to be absolutely aligned with Google, it’s vital to stay in mind that his thinking was evolving. He was conjointly to blame thousands of merchandise and helped champion Oracle’s move to the cloud. He has expertise with success nurturing merchandise enterprises have wished, and maybe that’s the type of data Google was trying to find in its next cloud leader.

Ray Wang, founder, and principal analyst at Constellation analysis says Google still must learn to support the enterprise, and he believes Kurian is that the right person to assist the corporate get there. “Kurian is aware of what’s needed to form a cloud company work for enterprise customers,” Wang aforementioned.

If he’s right, maybe AN old-school enterprise govt is simply what Google needs to show its Cloud division into AN enterprise-friendly powerhouse. the writer has perpetually maintained that it had been still youth for the cloud and Google had lots of time to capture a part of the untapped market, some extent she reiterated in her weblog post on Fri. “The cloud area is early and there's a colossal chance ahead,” she wrote.

She is also right this, however, market share positions appear to be hardening. AWS, that was initiated to promote, has a colossal market share lead, with over thirty p.c by most accounts. Microsoft is that the sole company at the instant with the market strength to present them a endure their cash and therefore the solely different company with double-digit market share numbers. In fact, Amazon features a larger market share than successive four firms combined, per knowledge from natural process analysis.

Sunday, November 11, 2018

Property and Casualty Insurance Sales Agent


Are you ready for a new and challenging sales career?  It’s time to check out Clearlink! We are currently expanding our top performing Insurance Sales team with new Property and Casualty Sales Executives. 

You will have the opportunity to grow your sales career substantially with uncapped commission and employer investment in your education. We are hiring talented sales individuals who are career oriented, sales driven, and money motivated. 

What want to hire you if:
  • You have 1-2 years experience in sales
  • You have excellent phone presentation and communication skills
  • You are capable of maintaining constant energy and enthusiasm on calls
  • You love building and maintaining strong client relationships
  • Excellent time management and organizational skills
  • Active Property + Casualty License - if you are not currently licensed, Clearlink will pay for your study and licensing materials
  • No repos, chapter 11 or 13 bankruptcies within the last 12 months
  • No chapter 7 bankruptcies within the last 3 years
  • Background check and fingerprints will be ran on all applicants; felonies/misdemeanors involving theft/fraud/violence/etc may prevent applicants from becoming licensed
What we offer:
  • $12.50/hr + $2.00/hr guaranteed minimum commission (base + uncapped commission)
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Wednesday, November 7, 2018

Mediterranean death toll reaches 2,000

Spain recovers 17 bodies, bringing Mediterranean death toll to 2,000. Spain’s maritime rescue service says it rescued 80 people and recovered 13 dead bodies from two boats in the Alboran Sea on Monday. In a separate incident, the Spanish Civil Guard said it found four bodies and 22 survivors after a wooden boat hit a reef in the Strait of Gibraltar. The number of lives lost in the Mediterranean this year has now surpassed 2,000, according to UNHCR, which said the rate of deaths has escalated sharply, even as total numbers of asylum-seekers and migrants arriving by sea have fallen to around 105,000 – a return to pre-2014 levels. The largest proportion of deaths have been reported in the Central Mediterranean, where search-and-rescue capacity has been significantly reduced by restrictions on NGO vessels.
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Thousands trapped by Al-Hudaydah fighting. According to aid groups, thousands of civilians are trapped on the southern outskirts of the Red Sea port of Al-Hudaydah as fighting between coalition forces and Houthi insurgents reached populated areas 4 kilometers from the port and close to the city’s largest hospital on Monday. The hospital is the main center for cholera and diphtheria treatment on Yemen’s western coast. Officials told the Associated Press that a total of 580 people had been killed or wounded since the coalition launched an offensive four days ago, despite mounting calls for a ceasefire from Western countries. Isaac Ooko, an area manager for the Norwegian Refugee Council, told Reuters that Al-Hudaydah had become a ghost city as intense air strikes kept people trapped indoors.


UNHCR urges Greece to address the crisis on islands. The UN Refugee Agency today called on Greek authorities to urgently improve conditions and reduce severe overcrowding at reception centers for asylum seekers on the islands of Samos and Lesvos. More than 6,500 people have been transferred from the islands to the mainland since August, but with arrivals still outpacing departures and winter approaching, UNHCR expressed concern that transfers have recently slowed. More than 4,400 people are currently living in and around Vathy reception center on Samos, nearly seven times its capacity while Moria on Lesvos is host to around 6,500 people, over three times its capacity.

The Nauru experience. The New York Times reports that at least 92 children have been moved from the small island nation of Nauru since August, but that 27 children remain there as a result of Australia’s policy of off-shore asylum processing, as well as hundreds of adults. Meanwhile, children and families sent to Australia for medical treatment are waiting to hear if they will be sent back to Nauru. A psychiatrist with Médecins Sans Frontières said many of the refugees had been clinging to the hope of resettlement to the United States and that a batch of rejections in May had plunged them into despair. UNHCR has called for the evacuation of all refugees and asylum-seekers from Nauru and Papua New Guinea.

Belgians open homes and hearts to asylum-seekers. Thousands of Belgians are volunteering with an organization that provides food and housing to refugees and migrants sleeping rough in a Brussels park. The Citizen’s Platform for the Support of Refugees, started by Mehdi Kassou, a Belgian of Moroccan ancestry, is housing about 650 people a night, some of them in a building they have permission to use and the rest in volunteers’ homes. The New York Times spoke to volunteer Anne-Catherine de Neve and her husband, Yves Hallet. They and their three children feed and house four to six migrants a night, five or six nights a week.

Emma Manton

British actress Emma Manton is challenging people to run 26.2 miles during the month of January as an act of solidarity with the refugees making epic journeys around the world. Registration fees for the “virtual marathon” will go to supporting UNHCR’s work.


Over 17,600 refugees and migrants are currently living on the Aegean islands in Greece. The majority are from Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria, and 30 percent are children.  

By Kristy Siegfried @klsiegfried   | 6 November, 2018

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Thursday, November 1, 2018

Thousands of Venezuelans on Peru border ahead of residency deadline

By Kristy Siegfried @klsiegfried   | 31 October 2018
Thousands of Venezuelans on Peru border ahead of residency deadline. Reuters reports that some 6,000 Venezuelans lined up at Ecuador’s border with Peru on Tuesday, hoping to enter the country before a deadline set by Peruvian President Martin Vizcarra to grant temporary residency permits. Vizcarra said on Monday that Peru had already welcomed almost half a million Venezuelans and that his government could not give them residency indefinitely. He said Peru would grant residency to those who entered the country by today and requested residence before 31 December. Since January 2017, UNHCR reports that more than 110,000 Venezuelans have obtained one-year renewable residency permits in Peru granting them the right to work, study and open bank accounts. The growing number of Venezuelans crowded at the border town of Tumbes has reportedly overwhelmed local services, and humanitarian groups are distributing food and water.
Troops deployed to Yemen’s Al-Hudaydah. Al Jazeera reports that more than 10,000 additional troops have been sent to the Houthi-held port city of Al-Hudaydah ahead of a planned new offensive to retake the city. According to an unnamed official, the mission is expected to start “within days”. Al-Hudaydah is the only port held by the Houthis and serves as the entry point for the bulk of Yemen’s commercial imports and aid supplies. On Tuesday, the UN’s humanitarian chief, Mark Lowcock, warned that the humanitarian situation in Yemen “continues to deteriorate ”. In a briefing to the UN Security Council last week, Lowcock said worsening fighting around Al-Hudaydah had deepened the crisis by “choking the lifeline which the aid operation and commercial imports rely on”. On Tuesday, US Defense Secretary Jim Mattis and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo both made separate calls for a ceasefire in Yemen.
Rohingya returns to Myanmar must not be rushed or premature, says UNHCR. Following yesterday’s announcement by officials from Bangladesh and Myanmar that repatriations of Rohingya refugees to Myanmar will begin by mid-November, UNHCR has cautioned that conditions in Rakhine state are “not yet conducive for returns”. UNHCR spokesperson Andrej Mahecic said it was critical that returns were not rushed or premature. “We would advise against imposing any timetable or target figures for repatriation,” he told Reuters. Rohingya refugees living in settlements in Cox’s Bazar told the Guardian that “the situation in Rakhine is still unsafe” and that Rohingyas are still fleeing to Bangladesh in small groups.
Why Iraqi Kurds are attempting dangerous journeys to Europe. Mahabad Ismael is the sole survivor of a boat that was carrying 35 people as it set off from the Turkish coast on 9 October and headed towards the Greek island of Chios. The boat started filling with water half an hour after it left the shore and eventually overturned. Ismael watched the waves swallow her husband and five children before sea currents pushed her to the shore. She and her family, as well as 13 other passengers who died that night, were from the Kurdish region of Iraq. Al Jazeera reports on why large numbers of Iraqi Kurds have attempted the dangerous journey to Europe in recent years, putting their lives in the hands of smugglers.
Bosnia races to move refugees and migrants to shelters before winter. Authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina have transferred dozens of refugees and migrants camped out for days near the Croatian border to an accommodation facility in the town of Velika Kladusa. Several hundred refugees and migrants walked to the border last week hoping to cross into Croatia but were turned back by police. Last week, authorities unveiled two new reception centers that together doubled the number of available beds for refugees and migrants to around 1,700. But with temperatures dropping, AFP reports that many others are still living in tents and in abandoned buildings in Una Sana Canton in the northwest of the country.
Refugees in Pittsburgh shaken by synagogue attack. The Jewish refugee resettlement agency HIAS was the target of an angry social media post by Robert Bowers shortly before he allegedly carried out the synagogue shooting that left 11 people dead on Saturday. HIAS is among nine agencies contracted by the US State Department to help refugees resettle in the United States. The Washington Post spoke to some of the refugees who have forged new lives in Pittsburgh after receiving help from HIAS and its local partner, Jewish Family and Community Services. They described experiencing extraordinary kindness in the city but said they had also seen evidence of racial divisions.
Verification of refugee numbers in Uganda concludes. A country-wide effort to count and biometrically register all asylum-seekers and refugees in Uganda ended last week. The verification exercise followed allegations earlier this year that senior government officials had inflated refugee figures and mismanaged the funds meant to support them. The exercise found that Uganda is hosting 1.1 million refugees, rather than the 1.4 million previously estimated. A statement jointly issued on Monday by the Ugandan government and UNHCR said that many factors contributed to the reduced figure, including cases of multiple registrations at the height of the influx from South Sudan in 2016 and 2017. The statement said new food assistance procedures have been rolled out that mitigate the risk of fraud.

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